How to tune a piano best practise


In this article we will look at how to tune a piano with best practise tips and tricks!

It might seem intimidating and an impossible task to tune the upright piano. But with the right tools and a smart-phone / iPad, it’s actually not that hard. It just takes a little bit of time. 😉

It’s totally worth it though! Because nothing beats a well tuned upright piano…right!?

I don’t pretend to be a piano tuning expert, but this is how I tune the piano. It’s quick and it works every time!

We are not gonna get mathematical, there are plenty of other videos explaining the equally tempered tuning. Instead, we are going to focus on just tuning the piano. Which I think is much more important than understanding the math behind.

How to tune the piano yourself

Ok, let’s talk about how you can tune the piano all by yourself!


First you need to grab the right piano tuning tools.

You will need: 

This is my piano tuning kit – tuning hammer, felt strap, muting clamp.

Complete Piano Tuning Kit from Amazon

You can also buy a complete piano tuning kit from Amazon which includes extra tuning tools. Like the Universal 8″ Nylon Piano Tuning Mute Clamp, extra hammer heads (torques) etc.

I use a Blue Baby Bottle SL to record my piano. It’s an excellent mid-budget microphone.

Why do I need piano tuning tools?

Let’s talk about why you need these piano tuning tools.

  • Hammer – you need the piano tuning hammer because it has a specific torque and the long handle and weight will help you get a good momentum and adjust the string tension with ease.
  • Tuning Felt strap – this is used to mute certain strings. You will notice that the low keys on a piano has a single string, while keys higher up the piano range will have three strings. With the tuning felt we can easily mute two of the strings and focus on tuning one single string at a time. This makes the tuning so much easier.
  • Piano Tuning App – will help us fine tune to a specific pitch. With PanoTuner we can see note pitch and also pitch displayed in hertz. I always tune the piano to concert pitch, which means 440hz. That’s the pitch which most electronic instruments are tuned in. We want to make sure we can play in tune with our band….or your favourite Spotify playlist. 😉


First we disassemble the front panel of the piano so we get access to the strings and tuning points.

At the low key range we have a single string per key. And at the higher range we have up to three strings per key.

To save you some time I will not show every single key, but the most important steps in the tuning process.


Tuning the lower keys is much easier than tuning the higher register. 

We only have one string to tune for each key.
Start up PanoTuner app. We will begin tuning C1 so play the key and see what pitch we get on the tuner. 

Now attach the tuning hammer to the tuning point.

You find the tuning point by following the piano hammer when you press down the key and see what string the hammer hits.

Let’s evaluate the current pitch of the piano key

99 % of the time the pitch on an old piano will have fallen flat. This means the pitch is lower than the target pitch.

If the pitch is flat, turn (or wiggle) the tuning hammer slowly clockwise to apply more strain. This will result in rising the pitch.
If you get too high you need to wiggle back a bit. It can take a little bit of fiddling before we get a fine tuned pitch.

With this string in tune we can progress to the nearby keys and tune them to the correct pitch. One at a time.


The higher register has more strings per key. So it requires some extra steps in the tuning process for each key.

Let’s tune middle C, which is C4. Not the explosives. 😉

Where does the middle C hammer hit? Those are our target strings to tune for this specific key. Tuning three strings is not much harder than tuning a single string. Let’s just break down the tuning into three steps!

Tuning piano string 1/3

Attach the tuning felt to mute the strings to the left and right of your middle string.
If we play the key we will only hear that single string.
Again, it’s a little bit flat so let’s apply some pressure with the tuning hammer.
Turn / wiggle clockwise slightly. If we get too far, just turn it counter clockwise.

Tuning piano string 2/3

With our middle string in tune release one part of the felt strap to the left. Just drag it like this.

Now play the key and listen for the vibrations.

Our left string will probably be low / flat compared to the middle string. So attach the tuning hammer and wiggle clockwise to apply some strain. Again, listen for the vibrations. When the vibrations disappear we have reached the target pitch.

Don’t forget to look at the piano tuner, it helps to see where the tuning is going.

With both string one and two in tune we can release the last part of the tuning felt and tune the final (third) string to the first two.

Tuning piano string 3/3

Attach the hammer to the third (and final) string for this key.

Play the key and again listen for the vibrations.

Tune the hammer clockwise until the vibrations disappear or are as slow as possible. That’s when all strings are in tune.


Now continue tuning the strings upwards the piano. 

Another piano tuning tip

In certain places the piano tuning felt strap may be hard to fit and attach, then I use a finger to mute one of the strings when tuning.

So, that’s basically how to tune a piano by yourself!

Mattias Holmgren

Mattias Holmgren is a creative director sailing from Sweden – business owner of Morningdew Media. Visit Mattias YouTube with videos on music, creative sound design, graphics and brand development. Check out the Resources Page if you want to know what gear i use. Join my exclusive community:
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